In past Zelda games, all caves had ways out. There would of course be glitches that get you stuck but generally, the design was to always provide a ladder or some kind of tunnel that would allow you a method of escape. In Tears of the Kingdom, this is not always the case and I have found myself stuck inside a cave or a well multiple times, not knowing how to get out.
Tears of the Kingdom is unique in the abilities that it provides you with and in many cases, the clue to escaping the cave is here.
As was the case in Breath of the Wild, fast travel is possible in this game but doing so may take you far away from your current location. This may not be what you want. The Popla Foothills skyview tower is a perfect example of this. You will find yourself stuck in the cave below the tower with no immediate way out. You can’t fast travel to the tower because its broken. So how do you get out? The answer is the uplift ability.
There are plenty of shrines that use this ability so it should be obvious to you when told but it is an easy one to forget about. Simply use the uplift ability in the cave and it will bring you right back to the land above without any issues. So next time you are stuck in a cave or stuck in a well in Tears of the Kingdom, remember this handy ability.