I have used up all of the resources available to me at the knot cities in the area. I understand these resources will replenish over time, but I don’t want to wait. Is there a way to make time pass faster in game in order to get these resources to come back?
To answer the direct question, you can pass time by using a timefall shelter while it is raining. This will advance time by 10 minutes. You can also rest in a shelter to pass time. These methods are generally used to make time pass so that the weather will clear up.
Getting resources to replenish in cities and camps seems more unpredictable. I am pretty sure you will need to do some deliveries to and from a location and let time pass in the real world rather than in game before resources start to come back. I went ahead with the story and when i came back to locations earlier in the game, there were still no resources. This is why I think the resources only come back when you are actively interacting with the locations for deliveries and stuff.